Validity and reliability in research methods

List strategies used by researchers to improve reliability and validity. Imagine that for each person you are measuring, you are taking a shot at the target. Reliability refers to consistency with which the research will produce the same results if repeated.

Qualitative health research, 11 4 Your measure in this case is neither reliable nor valid. If findings are corroborated or confirmed by others who examine the data, then no inappropriate biases impacted the data analysis.

Here, we are comparing two different concepts verbal versus math and so we would expect the relationship to be lower than a comparison of the same concept with itself e.

Reliability & Validity

The third scenario shows a case where your hits are spread across the target and you are consistently missing the center.

You seldom hit the center of the target but, on average, you are getting the right answer for the group but not very well for individuals. Qualitative research has become increasingly popular in the past two decades.

The cell on the lower left shows a comparison of the verbal written measure with the verbal teacher observation rating. Define and reliability and validity in qualitative research. Here, we are comparing the verbal written exam with the math teacher observation rating. The second, shows hits that are randomly spread across the target.

The first cell on the upper left shows the comparison of the verbal written test score with the verbal written test score. The more you are off for that person, the further you are from the center.

Like the cell on the upper right, we are also trying to compare two different concepts verbal versus math and so this is a discriminant validity estimate. Finally, we have the cell on the lower right.

That is, you are consistently and systematically measuring the wrong value for all respondents. Dependability - Otherwise known as reliability, refers to the consistency with which the results could be repeated and result in similar findings.

This means that the results are generalizable and can be applied to other similar settings, populations, situations and so forth. Here, I want to show you two ways you can think about their relationship.

But how can we compare the same measure with itself? This depends more on the richness of the data gathered than on the quantity of data. We could do this by estimating the reliability of the written test through a test-retest correlation, parallel forms, or an internal consistency measure See Types of Reliability.

Because the nature of qualitative research often results in an ever changing research setting and changing contexts, it is important that researcher document all aspects of any changes or unexpected occurrences to further explain the findings.

Another way we can think about the relationship between reliability and validity is shown in the figure below. Because we are trying to measure the same concept, we are looking at convergent validity See Measurement Validity Types. The cell on the upper right shows the comparison of the verbal written exam with the math written exam.

The columns of the table indicate whether you are trying to measure the same or different concepts. Here, you can clearly see that reliability is directly related to the variability of your measure. Researchers bring their own unique perspectives to the research process and data interpretation can be somewhat subjective in qualitative research.

This is also important for other researchers who may want to replicate the study. The findings must be believable, consistent, applicable and credible if they are to be useful to readers and other researchers.

Confirmability - A measure of the objectivity used in evaluating the results, describes how well the research findings are supported by the actual data collected when examined by other researchers.

Validity refers to accuracy or correctness of the findings. Triangulation is a commonly used method for verifying accuracy that involves cross-checking information from multiple perspectives. Here, we set up a 2x2 table. Transferability - Often called external validity, refers to the degree that the findings of the research can be transferred to other contexts by the readers.

The rows show whether you are using the same or different methods of measurement. If you measure the concept perfectly for a person, you are hitting the center of the target.Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research Abstract The use of reliability and validity are common in quantitative research and now it is.

The use of reliability and validity are common in quantitative research and now it is reconsidered in the qualitative research paradigm.

Since reliability and validity are rooted in positivist perspective then they should be redefined for their use in. Issues of research reliability and validity need to be addressed in methodology chapter in a concise manner.

Reliability refers to the extent to which the same answers can be obtained using the same instruments more than one time. Establishing Validity in Qualitative Research The following module discusses reliability and validity in qualitative research, with an emphasis on establishing credibility and transferability.

Learning Objectives. On one end is the situation where the concepts and methods of measurement are the same (reliability) and on the other is the situation where concepts and methods of measurement are different (very discriminant validity). Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research Ellen A.

Drost introduced and major methods to assess reliability and validity reviewed Validity and reliability in social science research items can first be given as a .

Validity and reliability in research methods
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